Seborrheic dermatitis is a mild type of chronic eczema typically confined to the hairy area (scalp, ears, face, central chest) and folds area (armpit, between thigh). It is due to the active oil gland leading to sebum overproduction and the commensal yeast Malassezia.
It presents as flaky, greasy scales with reddish skin over the area. It can be treated with anti-fungal shampoo and topical medications.
Tinea capitis is a fungal infection over the scalp and hair by the organisms called Trichophyton and Microsporum species.
It may have been presented as fine scales over the hair and scalp with an area of baldness. The hair is brittle and easily broken. In worst cases, it may present as a boggy swelling with an area of pus formation. This condition should be treated early as it has the risk of causing permanent baldness.
Treatment includes oral anti-fungal, a topical agent like anti-fungal shampoo.
Pediculosis capitis is the infestation of head lice called Pediculus humanus capitis over the scalp, behind the ears, and neck area. It is spread via direct contact with a person who was infested.
It presents as itch and irritation over the affected area. There will be multiple nits (transparent/white dots) seen.
Topical insecticides are the mainstay treatment for this condition.